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新SAT必考美国文献“第7讲”《林肯第二次就职演说》


摘要:随着新 SAT 阅读难度的增加,中国考生急需补充美国历史政治常识。主要分为两类:一是涉及美国建国史的相关文章,二是体现美国基本价值观的文章。 今天继续为大家推送,请各位同学利用碎片时间坚持阅读,必有收获。让我们阅读英文原文,再对照中文解释以及相关背景视频

随着新SAT阅读难度的增加,中国考生急需补充美国历史政治常识。主要分为两类:一是涉及美国建国史的相关文章,二是体现美国基本价值观的文章。

今天继续为大家推送,请各位同学利用碎片时间坚持阅读,必有收获。让我们阅读英文原文,再对照中文解释以及相关背景视频,补充基本背景常识和美国历史。当然有同学喜欢先读英文,也可以。

我们的每一篇都带有中英文,关键是要阅读,要补充基本背景常识和美国历史。

具体安排如下:建议每周一篇,认真研读,5月考试阅读再考到这些,轻松加愉快

同胞们:

 

在第二次宣誓就职总统的时候,我不必像第一次那样作长篇的演讲了。第一次就职典礼上,较为详尽地叙述我们要采取的方针和道路,看来是合适与恰当的。现在,在我的四年任期结束之时,有关这场至今仍为举国瞩目与致力的大斗争的每个方面,时时有公开的宣告,因此没有新的内容向各位奉告了。我们的一切都依靠武装力量,这方面的进展,大家知道得和我一样清楚。我相信,大家对此颇感满意和鼓舞。我们对未来抱有很大希望,在军事方面就无庸多作预测。

 

四年前我初次就职之际,全国思虑都集中在即将爆发的内战之上。大家对内战都怀有恐惧,都设法避免这场内战的发生。当时我在这个讲坛上发表的就职演说,全部内容就是为了不战而拯救联邦。当时城里的叛逆分子却企图不用战争而摧毁联邦,企图通过谈判来瓦解联邦,瓜分国家所有。双方都反对战争,但其中一方却宁愿战争也不愿联邦毁灭,于是内战爆发。

 

我国黑奴占人口八分之一,他们不是普遍分布于全国各地,而是集中在南部。这些黑奴,构成一种特殊而重要的利益。尽人皆知,这种利益迟早会成为战争的起因。叛逆分子不惜发动战争分裂联邦,以达到增大、扩展这种利益、使之永存的目的,政府却除去要求将奴隶制限于原来区域,不使扩大之外,不要求其他任何权利,双方都不曾预料到战争会有这样大的规模,持续这样久,不曾预料到引起冲突的原因在冲突停止前会消失。双方都寻求轻而易举的胜利,不求彻底或惊人的结果。双方信奉同一宗教。敬拜同一上帝,都诉求上帝帮助战胜对方。说来奇怪,竟有人敢于要求公正的上帝帮助自己去榨取别人的血汗;但我们不要去品评他人吧,以免受到别人的评论。双方的祈求都不应得到满足,也没有任何一方得到完全的满足,因为全能的上帝自有主张。“祸哉斯世,以其陷入故也,夫陷人于罪,事所必有,但陷人祸矣。”

 

如果我们把美国的奴隶制当成是上帝必定要降给我们的灾祸,这灾祸已经到了上帝指定期限,他现在要免去这场灾祸了。他把这场可怕的战争降给南北双方,是要惩罚那些带来灾祸的人。笃信耶稣基督的人常把许多美德归于基督,我们难道可以说基督的这些作为,与他的美德相悖吗?

 

我们满怀希望,我们热诚祈祷,愿这场惩罚我们的战争早日过去;但假若天意要这场战争延续下去,直至二百五十年来利用奴隶无偿劳动辛苦积聚下来的财富销毁净尽,直至奴隶在皮鞭下流淌的鲜血用刀剑下的鲜血来偿清,如同三千年前古语所说的那样,我们仍然要称颂上帝的判决是公允合理的。

 

我们对任何人不怀恶意,对所有人都抱有善心,对上帝使我们认识到的正义无限坚定。让我们努力完成我们正在进行的工作,愈合国家的战争伤痕,关怀战死的烈士及其遗属,尽一切力量争得并维护我国及全世界的正义的、持久的和平。

 

 

 

Second Inaugural Address

 

Fellow-Countrymen:

 

At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first Then a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point andphase of his great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented The progress ofour arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the publicas to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging toall With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.

 

On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directedto an impending civil war All dreaded it;all sought to avert it While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving teing deliveredfrom this urgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war-seeking todissolvethe Union and divide effects by negotiation Both parties deprecated war, butone of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would acceptwar rather than let it perish, and the war came One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union,but localized in the southern partof it Their slaves constituted a peculiarand powerful interest.

 

All knew that this interest was somehow the cause ofthe war To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of itNeither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration, which it has already attained Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflictmight cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding Both read the same Bible andpray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against theother.

 

It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringingtheir bread from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be notjudged That of neither has been answered fully The Almighty has His own purposes "Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must need be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense comet."

 

If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which,having continued through His appointedtime, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern there in anydeparture from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him?

 

Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray that this mighty scourge of war may speedilypass away? Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman'stwo hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was saidthree thousand years ago so still it must be said "The judgments of the Lord aretrue andrighteous altogether."

 

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us tosee the might, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.