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雅思口语评分标准,词汇多样性从6分提高到7分


摘要:雅思口语第二条评分标准是词汇多样性 (Lexical resource) 。所谓词汇多样性,就是指同一个词重复次数不能太多。在考试以外的日常交流中,词汇只要能够把我们的意思传达到位就可以了,不需要考虑重复不重复,但在雅思考试中,重复用词应尽量避免。此外,多样性并不意味

雅思口语第二条评分标准是词汇多样性(Lexical resource)。所谓词汇多样性,就是指同一个词重复次数不能太多。在考试以外的日常交流中,词汇只要能够把我们的意思传达到位就可以了,不需要考虑重复不重复,但在雅思考试中,重复用词应尽量避免。此外,多样性并不意味着用一些所谓的大词、难词,也不是说要用一些偏词、怪词。不管是什么样的词,如果重复使用过多次,在考试中都不大可能获得太好的分数。

Band

Lexical resource

7

uses vocabulary resource flexibly to discuss a variety of topics

uses some less common and idiomatic vocabulary and shows some awareness of style and collocation, with some inappropriate choices

uses paraphrase effectively

6

has a wide enough vocabulary to discuss topics at length and make meaning clear in spite of inappropriacies

generally paraphrases successfully

5

manages to talk about familiar and unfamiliar topics but uses vocabulary with limited flexibility

attempts to use paraphrase but with mixed success

我们来看雅思口语官方评分标准中对6分词汇多样性的规定:

has a wide enough vocabulary to discuss topics at length and make meaning clear in spite of inappropriacies; generally paraphrases successfully

1

由此我们可以看出,要想在词汇多样性方面拿到6分,考生首先要具备a wide enough vocabulary

这里,关键的部分是wide, 强调用词范围的广度,而不是所谓的bigdifficult, 也就是说并不需要用太大太难的词。例如,在表达“他学习很用功”时,很多考生不想说“He studies very hard., 觉得这样太没水平了。在查过字典后,不少考生可能会说“He studies very diligently.”。“diligently”这个词用在这里并没有什么不好,意义也比较准确。但是,有些考生会有一个习惯,那就是每次在遇到同样的表达时,总会不断地重复使用刚学会的词,如不少考生在遇到要表达“勤奋”或“用功”时,想到的词就只有“diligently, 除此之外再想不到其它更好的词了。过多重复使用“diligently”这个词,效果和使用“hard”这个词没什么差别,甚至更会给考官留下词汇有限这一印象。因此,雅思6分的用词,更强调的是同义词替换。

2

其次,6分的用词还强调“make meaning clear”这一点。换句话说,就是考生在使用一个词之前,一定要确保它的意义是准确无误的。

例如,在表达“他正在为这次校园活动做宣传”这句话时,很多考生不知道“宣传”应该用哪个词来表达,在查了词典之后,选用了第一个看到的“propaganda”这个词,将这句说成“He is conducting propaganda for this campus activity”。但是,在《麦克米兰辞典(Macmillan Dictionary)》中,“propaganda”这个词表示的是“information, especially false information, that a government or organization spreads in order to influence peoples opinions and beliefs, 即“propaganda”其实指的是“政治宣传”,而不能用来表示“校园宣传”。因此,“propaganda”即便看起来非常高端,但因其表达意义出错,是无法帮助考生拿到的。如果考生使用“promote”这个词,将表达改为“He is promoting for this campus activity, 这样分数肯定会比用“propaganda”来得高。

3

第三,在6分的词汇多样性中,“paraphrase”技巧也不能忽视。

何谓“paraphrase”?简单说来,就是“释义”或“意译”。具体地说,就是“用词组或是句子来解释某个单词”。举一个例子,在表达“他学习很用功”这句话时,考生们除了说“He studies very hard.”之外,还可以用类似“He studies almost day and night.”或“He spends a lot of time in studying.”等说法来表达。因此,如果考生在表达时遇到不会说的单词,要学会用“paraphrase”技巧,换一种说法来说,这也是一种同义转换的形式。同时,“paraphrase”也是一种重要的扩充技巧。例如,我们在表达一个人很乐观时,可能只会说“He is an optimistic person. 但是,如果运用“paraphrase”这个技巧进行扩充,我们就可以这样说“He is an optimistic person, that is to say, he is a happy person and always has a positive attitude towards life. 也就是说,我们可以在每句话之后,用类似定语从句的结构,对前句中某个特定的词汇进行释义,更加具体地扩充自己的回答。

接下来,我们来对比一下词汇多样性5分的评分标准。

在这一分数段中,考生必须做到manages to talk about familiar and unfamiliar topics but uses vocabulary with limited flexibility, 同时还要attempts to use paraphrase but with mixed success。由“limited flexibility”这一点我们可以看出,6分词汇和5分的最大区别,不在于6分词汇有多大多难,而在于“a wide enough vocabulary, 也就是说,6分词汇和5分词汇最大的区别就是“同义词转换”。而作为一项重要的技巧,“paraphrase”也在5分的词汇多样性中被要求使用。

那么词汇多样性要从6分提高到7分,又要注意哪些方面呢?

从评分标准中可以看出,7分的词汇同样强调的是vocabulary resourceparaphrase, 即同义转换和释义技巧。与此同时,7分词汇和6分词汇的区别还在于,7分强调使用less common and idiomatic vocabulary, 并注意collocation。那么,什么是less common vocabulary呢?当我们谈到“粉丝”的时候,很多考生脑中的第一个反映就是“fans”。但是,如果考生能推陈出新,说出类似“groupie”之类的词,这就属于使用less common vocabulary了。但是,更重要的是,考生们要学会使用idiomatic vocabulary, 即“习惯用语”。例如前面提到的“他学习很用功”,考生如果能使用“hit the book”这一“习惯用语”表达“学习用功”,效果要比使用同义转换和释义技巧来得好。最后,在使用词组时,还要注意不能在“collocation”上出错,即不能有太多词组搭配的错误。例如,不能把“be proficient in”说成“be proficient at”。因此,7分词汇也不强调使用难词大词,而是习惯用语的运用和词组搭配的准确。

最后,我们来看一些例子,体会词汇多样性在不同分数段的变化。

Question: What kind of music is popular now in China?

 

词汇多样性5分回答:

Different people have different tastes. In China, some people like classical music, they can get inner peace from it. For example, my grandfather likes to listen to Mozart every day, he has a lot of classical music CDs. But others may like rock music, because they think it helps them to release pressure. Take my brother as an example. He likes to listens to famous rock music bands, such as Bon Jovi and Coldplay.

 

词汇多样性6分回答:

Different people have different tastes. In China, some people is interested in classical music, they can get inner peace from it. For example, my grandfather enjoys to listen to Mozart every day, he has a lot of classical music CDs. But others may be crazy about rock music, because they think it helps them to release pressure. Take my brother as an example. He is fond of listening to some famous rock music bands, such as Bon Jovi and Coldplay.

 

词汇多样性7分回答:

Tastes differ. In China, classical music is the cup of tea for some people, they can get inner peace from it. For example, my grandfather enjoys to listen to Mozart every day, he has a lot of classical music CDs. But others may be groupies for rock music, because they think it helps them to release pressure. Take my brother as an example. He is fond of listening to some famous rock music bands, such as Bon Jovi and Coldplay.