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托福综合口语,如何在转述中提升阅读还原和意见表达?


摘要:很多考生在描述自己口语的情况时常说自己口语的问题主要在于独立口语部分表现不好,一是自己的语音面貌不是很理想,体现在语音,语调,和语速控制不懂得如何把握;二是自己在答题过程中缺乏好的思路,造成组织答案苍白没有新意,听上去模板化。这反映出同学们其实很了

 很多考生在描述自己口语的情况时常说自己口语的问题主要在于独立口语部分表现不好,一是自己的语音面貌不是很理想,体现在语音,语调,和语速控制不懂得如何把握;二是自己在答题过程中缺乏好的思路,造成组织答案苍白没有新意,听上去模板化。这反映出同学们其实很了解自己的问题,因此一般会把精力放在提高独立部分而容易忽视综合部分,对于常犯的错误更是知之甚少。

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造成这种现象主要是因为大多数同学认为综合口语不过是对原文的阐述,只要听得懂,说出来自然没问题,这也就是为什么口语的总体分数常常不理想的重要原因。毕竟,综合部分有四道题目,话题的数量和份量都较独立部分更高。每一个部分都有它自己的特点和答题的方法,单纯的对原文重复是不能达到一个较高水平的要求的。因此本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的将着重讨论一下口语第三题的转述技巧。

 

我们以TPO24的第三题做一个范例,阅读部分如下:

 

Close the CampusCoffee house

I propose that theuniversity close the campus coffeehouse. Coffeehouses are great, if peopleactually use them, like to socialize with friends, while enjoying a cup ofcoffee and a snack. But students are not using our campus coffeehouse. Thereare usually lots of empty tables when I pass by the place.

 

It is just a wasteof space that could be used for other things. Also, the food at the coffeehouseis not very good. The last time I was there, the cakes and muffins my friendsand I ordered were dry and didn’t have much flavor.

 

Sincerely,

GregSmith

 

首先分析这是一篇学生建议类的阅读,他的建议是关闭校园的咖啡店。他提出建议的原因基于两点:一是空,没人用;二是食物的味道太差。

 

我们在阅读部分先要做一个转述,一般在校园对话类题目中我们常会用theman says that...,或者thewoman said that... 这类的表述,这里首先要注意的一点就是要使用转述性引语。比如如果原文是这样:

 

Mymother said: “I’m so tired that I don’t want to cook. Shall we eat out tonight?”

 

我们在转述中要说:My mother said that shewas so tired that she didn’t want to cook and she suggested that we should eatout that day.

 

又如:Tom said: “I’ve alreadyseen the film.”

Tomsaid that he had already seen the film.

 

这是中学时期的一个语法点,但是当提到这个点时很多同学并没有印象,原因就是很多我们学到的语法知识都只是停留在知识点的阶段,而没有融入到语境和实际的交流中。

 

在这个语法点上,要注意几条特定的规则:

1. that是从属连词,通常放在间接引语之前。

2. 在转述中,引语的核心动词,即从句的动词,通常要向过去退一个时态,比如常见的就是一般现在时要改成一般过去时。

3. 指代时间和地点的词通常要和新的视角及新的时态保持一致。

4. 例外,如果间接涉及客观真理,就用一般现在时就好了,这个和我们平时使用时态的习惯是一致的,不需要再退后一个时态。

 

这里要特别注意第四个原则,因为在第三题中常常会涉及人们对于观点和事实的讨论。比如Student: Hey, athletics areimportant to this university. They want players to be successful.

 

这里体育活动在学校生活中居于首要地位是一个众所周知的事实,所以用间接引语转述该生的话时,可以用现在时。这样,这句话就要变为:

Theman said that athletics are important to the university and that the universitywants athletics to be successful.

 

回归我们的题目,日常的饮食对于学生来说也是一个常见的,共识性的话题,所以原题我们就可以这么说:Theman/student suggests that campus coffee house should be closed/ the studentproposes to close the coffee house in campus, because students usually don’tuse it and the food in coffee house is not good.

 

阅读的部分基本分析得比较完整了,然后是听力部分:

 

 

StudentA:

 

StudentA:

Idon’t like his proposal.

StudentB:

Whynot? There are never many students in there.

StudentA:

Butthat’s what I like about it that is never crowded.

StudentB: Really?

StudentA:

Yeah,so it’s a great place to study. I go there a lot, read a book, bring my laptopcomputer and work on a paper for class. It’s never noisy.

StudentB:

Youare able to get your work done there?

StudentA:

Absolutely.In fact, I actually prefer it to the library as the place to study, and a lotof other students do too. We even study for our final exam there, and you caneat there while at work, something you cannot do in the library.

StudentB:

OK,but you don’t actually like the food, do you? I mean, he says…

StudentA:

Well,I don’t he’s been there recently, I mean it’s true that it wasn’t that great inthe past. But I think it’s a lot better now.

StudentB:

What’schanged?

StudentA:

Theyhave a new manger and I guess she has made some improvements in the quality ofthe food. I was there last week and food was delicious.

StudentB:

Really?

StudentA:

Yeah,really. And the new manager has also added a lot of really healthy food andsnacks, so the food doesn’t just taste good now. It’s good for you too.

StudentB:

Hmm,I’ll have to try the place.

 

 

听力中我们听到男孩对于信中的建议是反对的,对于反对观点的表达我们有太多的说法了。

 

首先我们可以选择复述原文,直接说The man doesn’tlike his proposal. 或者同学们可以说Theman holds a negative view towards the suggestion.

 

下面为大家总结了一些常见的表示支持观点的转述句型:

Hesupports/ backs/ endorses/advocates the plan.

Sheagrees with/ expresses support for/approves of/argues in favor of the plan.

Heis for/ is in favor of/is delighted with/ is behind/is comfortable with/ispleased with the plan.

Sheaccepts that the plan is a good idea./ She thinks the plan is reasonable./ Shebelieves the plan is well-designed./ She thinks the plan has benefits.

 

下面是常见的反对观点的转述句:

Hedoesn't support/opposes/ rejects/ dislikes the plan.

Shedisagrees with/ expresses dissatisfaction about/ disapproves of/ argues againstthe plan.

Heis against/is not in favor of/ is disappointed with/ is opposed to/ isuncomfortable with/ is displeased with the plan.

Shequestions that the plan is necessary./ She thinks the plan is unreasonable./She believes the plan is misguided./ She thinks the plan has weaknesses.

 

接下来在正文的答题过程中,有些同学会有这样的一种疑虑:我说得太慢会不会影响我的得分?但说得太快会不会中间有许多停顿,那大概停顿几次是合理的,不会影响得分呢?朗阁海外考试研究中心的给出的回答是,太快和太慢都是不合理并且不合适的,官方对于语速的要求是要做到清晰自然,语速太慢、回答的内容过少会造成答案空洞,而一味的追求速度,使得回答听上去像一架机关枪也是不可取的。

 

对于停顿是没有一个明确的要求的,关键是要使答案听上去是自然的。说得太快往往容易忽略句子的语调和重音,使得句群划分不合理,造成听者理解上的困难,是一定会造成不必要的失分的。我们的停顿有时正是体现我们思考的过程,是语言交流中完全正常的行为。在和nativespeaker的交谈中,往往他们遇到难以回答的问题时也会emm, ah地说出一些小的语气词。

 

还有一个问题也是同学们在答题过程中常会出现的,就是如果在考试中我记错一个单词的意思,或是出现了语法错误,说出口的一瞬间就猛然醒悟有问题,这时该怎么办,是把刚才说的话重述一遍修改为正确版本呢,还是不管它,硬着头皮继续说下去。

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心的对此的建议是,如我们在此讨论的主题是一致的,如果是不影响语义或者不会造成歧义的轻微失误,完全可以顺着答案继续说下去,这也是在ETS允许的范围之内的。Native speaker在交流中也会多多少少有一些语法错误,甚至一些如CNN, VOA的记者在采访时也会有小的失误,何况对于学习外语的我们。但如果可以进行巧妙地弥补或者转述也许会给rater留下更好的印象。比如中文无论男性还是女性我们称呼第三人称都是“ta”, 而英文中有he, she之别,所以有时会把主人公的性别说错,例如上文说男孩观点可能会说成shedisagrees the suggestion,这时我们可以说“Imean, he disagrees”, 通过证明自己知道正确的说法,向评分者展现自己的水平。

 

所以善用一些小词可以对先前所说的有问题的句子进行修正,比如I mean, that is to say,what I am trying to say is..., 甚至可以用um, uh这样的口头语。当然也不能过于频繁地使用,我们权衡的标准就是不影响我们正常的思路和流畅的答题。

 

所以对于语言的转述我们从心态上要做到适当的放松,及时修正明显的失误,放过那些小的不恰当措辞,毕竟考官更加注重的是你的前后衔接与整体的连贯。

 

接着我们将后面的答案进行连贯的组织就应该是这样:

 

The studentproposes to close the Campus Coffee house because students usually don’tuse it and the food in the coffee house is not good.

 

The woman in theconversation dislikes the proposal. She says that she likes staying the CoffeeHouse since it’s never crowded, and it provides a great place tostudy. So she always reads a book or works on a paper in it. She evenprefers it to the library.

 

Plus,students can eat while they study there. She also says that though thefood wasn’t great, it’s a lot better now. For the Coffee House has got a newmanager. Last week, she went there and the food was delicious. Besides,the new manager has added a lot of really healthy food and snack; it istailored for everyone’s taste now.

 

在整合答案的过程中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的和ETS的要求都是一致的,要善于使用transitional words将整个回答连贯起来,这才能充分体现逻辑性。除此之外,有时我们在说这些连接词的过程,也可以是自己思考和组织答案的过程,也就是说有时我们停顿都可以停顿得很美国范,让你的听众和考官听出你其实在思考。

 

对于口语的评判是多方面的,整体平衡的表现才是rater所关心和注意的。在我们每天识记单词和学习地道短语表达的同时,如果还能用到本文所提到的一些转述技巧,无疑会使答案更加出彩,给考官留下一个好的印象,从而得到理想的口语分数。