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如何运用发散性思维备考雅思口语?


摘要:本文将介绍的是运用发散性思维进行雅思备考。 发散思维(Divergent Thinking),指大脑在思维时呈现的一种扩散状态的思维模式,它表现为思维视野广阔,思维呈现出多维发散状。 在口语中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将把发散性思维分为经历型发散,类别型发散,互补型发

本文将介绍的是运用发散性思维进行雅思备考。

发散思维(Divergent Thinking),指大脑在思维时呈现的一种扩散状态的思维模式,它表现为思维视野广阔,思维呈现出多维发散状。在口语中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将把发散性思维分为经历型发散,类别型发散,互补型发散和特性发散。

 

  

 

一、经历型发散

 

经历型发散是将关键词或者短语,转换成个人经历进行思维扩散。主要从事情的时间(when),地点(where),内容(what),人物(who),做事情的频率(how often),时长(how long)以及个人感受(why)等方面进行思维发散。对于雅思口语中的基本问题,大家可以使用上述方法进行备考。

 

如近期Part 1的高频话题snack, 我们就可以用以下方法。首先根据关键词进行发散:

 

 

When: watching TV; during the break of class; watching movie

Where: at home; in the cinema; in the classroom

What: chocolate bar; candy; sunflower seeds; peanuts; crisps; beef jerky; nuts; cookies

Who: share with family members; friends; roommates; and classmates

How often: almost every day

Why: kill time; keep focused at class; yummy… 

 


下面我们来看问题:


What kinds of snacks do you like to eat?

Normally, I will give my preference to sweet food such as chocolate bars, candies and cookies. I eat them almost everyday when I watch TV or movie, or sometimes during the break of the class. For me, sweet snacks are all quite yummy.


以经历进行发散来回答基本问题的话,我们可以避免用词的重复度,同样也可以较好地避免因果关系进行描述,使回答内容和句型都更加多样性。


 

 

二、类别型发散

 

类别型发散是指对关键词或者话题进行分类,构思关键词下面的各个平行类别,并且按照类型进行逐个分析。

 

常见的分类话题有:

 

 

famous people: superstar; sports star; scientist; Noble Prize Laureate; online celebrity…

popular jobs: civil servant; doctor; state-owned employee; sales rep…

public transport: metro; bus; taxi; train; coach; plane…

music: classical music; pop music; jazz; light music…

festivals: Christmas; Valentine’s day; Thanksgiving day; the Dragon Boat festival; Spring festival

food: fast food; homemade food; food in the restaurant; junk food

 

 

以工作类Part 3话题为例,我们可以进行如下回答:


What are the well-paid jobs in your country?

In terms of jobs with decent salaries, the first one come to my mind is civil servant. Their works are relatively stable and of real satisfying welfare. Also, doctors can obtain high payment. The main reason is that it is a quite demanding job. Beside, sales reps can probably procure high income once they own good performance.


长期训练关键词分类,有助于考试过程中从多方面,多角度思考问题,使得回答显得更加全面,有说服力。此外,这样可以有效增加考试时的灵活应变能力。


 

 

三、互补型发散

 

互补型发散即在提及话题时,能够快速的想到话题反面,并且进行对比来对话题进行论证。

 

常见互补关键词或者方面如:

 

 

countryside-city center

weekend-workdays

home-made-dining out

being alone-be with friends

small company-big company

paper books-electronic books

light color-dark color

formal occasion-casual occasion

individual sport-group sport

male’s preference-female’s preference

outdoor activity-indoor activity

public transport-private transport

abroad-within the country

long distance-short distance

modern-traditional

western-eastern

 

例题:

Why do Chinese people like to travel abroad?

Actually, compared with traveling within in the country, overseas traveling is more attractive. They are able to experience a wholly different culture and encounter local residents who will use the different language. Also, by traveling to foreign countries, people can fulfill their satisfaction by purchasing the luxury good of relatively lower price than that in China. These are the reasons why Chinese people show their preference to outbound trips.


通过发散思考话题对立面,我们能够有更多的内容进行表达。同时,通过对立面的对比和解析,观点的描述会更有说服力。建议在备考的过程中能够多通过正反面进行互相论证,增强辩证性思维能力。


 

 

四、特性发散

 

特性发散主要针对话题或者关键词特性进行思维发散,如clothes, electronic device, hometown, film等。与其他发散方式不同的是,我们可以对于话题进行多方面的自由发散,并且对发散的点可以再次拓展。这样有助于对话题的问题进行一定的预测,并且能够对话题进行多特性回答。

 

Clothes: brand; color; material; price; style; pattern; place for shopping…

Electronic device: brand; function; appearance; price…

Hometown: food; scenery; traffic; weather & climate; people…

Film: Chinese film; screen; actress; soundtrack; background

 

例题:

What clothes do you usually like to wear?

I feel like wearing clothes of common brand and light color. For example, casual clothes like T-shirt or jeans, they are affordable by most of students and also free-styled. I prefer light color coz it can always help me to stand out.

对于一个话题,我们可以从话题的各方面进行构思,这样能够对于话题更全面的回答。