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摘要:雅思考试阅读考题回顾 广州朗阁培训中心 老师姓名:王新勇 考试日期 2015年2月28日 Reading Passage 1 Title 女考古学家身赴柬埔寨 Cambodia 探索人类 remains 的事 Question types TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN 7题 Summa
雅思考试阅读考题回顾 广州朗阁培训中心 老师姓名:王新勇
Reading Passage 1
女考古学家身赴柬埔寨 Cambodia 探索人类 remains 的事
Question types
1-7 TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN 1. FALSE 2. NOT GIVEN 3. TRUE 填空题答案(不全,待定) University Funding Map Archeology
Reading Passage 2
认知心理 Multitasking Debate—Can you do them at the same time?
Question types
段落信息配对 5 人名观点配对 5 填空 3
Talking on the phone while driving isn't the only situation where we're worse at multitasking than we might like to think we are. New studies have identified a bottleneck in our brains that some say means we are fundamentally incapable of true multitasking. If experimental findings reflect real-world performance, people who think they are multitasking are probably just underperforming in
all - or at best, all but one - of their parallel pursuits. Practice might improve your performance, but you will never be as good as when focusing on one task at a time. The problem, according to René Marois, a psychologist at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, is that there's a sticking point in the brain. To demonstrate this, Marois devised an experiment to locate it. Volunteers watch a screen and when a particular image appears, a red circle, say, they have to press a key with their index finger. Different coloured circles require presses from different fingers. Typical response time is about half a second, and the volunteers quickly reach their peak performance. Then they learn to listen to different recordings and respond by making a specific sound. For instance, when they hear a bird chirp, they have to say "ba"; an electronic sound should elicit a "ko", and so on. Again, no problem. A normal person can do that in about half a second, with almost no effort. The trouble comes when Marois shows the volunteers an image, then almost immediately plays them a sound. Now they're flummoxed. "If you show an image and play a sound at the same time, one task is postponed," he says. In fact, if the second task is introduced within the half-second or so it takes to process and react to the first, it will simply be delayed until the first one is done.
Shanghai Longre Training Center
The largest dual-task delays occur when the two tasks are presented simultaneously; delays progressively shorten as the interval between presenting the tasks lengthens (See Diagram). There are at least three points where we seem to get stuck, says Marois. The first is in simply identifying what we're looking at. This can take a few tenths of a second, during which time we are not able to see and recognise a second item. This limitation is known as the "attentional blink": experiments have shown that if you're watching out for a particular event and a second one shows up unexpectedly any time within this crucial window of concentration, it may register in your visual cortex but you will be unable to act upon it. Interestingly, if you don't expect the first event, you have no trouble responding to the second. What exactly causes the attentional blink is still a matter for debate. A second limitation is in our short-term visual memory. It's estimated that we can keep track of about four items at a time, fewer if they are complex. This capacity shortage is thought to explain, in part, our astonishing inability to detect even huge changes in scenes that are otherwise identical, so-called "change blindness". Show people pairs of near-identical photos - say, aircraft engines in one picture have disappeared in the other - and
they will fail to spot the differences .Here again, though, there is
disagreement about what the essential limiting factor really is. Does it come down to a dearth of storage capacity, or is it about how much attention a viewer is paying? A third limitation is that choosing a response to a stimulus - braking when you see a child in the road, for instance, or replying when your mother tells you over the phone that she's thinking of leaving your dad - also takes brainpower. Selecting a response to one of these things will delay by some tenths of a second your ability to respond to the other. This is called the "response selection bottleneck" theory, first proposed in 1952. Last December, Marois and his colleagues published a paper arguing that this bottleneck is in fact created in two different areas of the brain: one in the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex and another in the superior medial frontal cortex (Neuron, vol 52, p 1109). They found this by scanning people's brains with functional MRI while the subjects struggled to choose among eight possible responses to each of two closely timed tasks. They discovered that these brain areas are not tied to any particular sense but are generally involved in selecting responses, and they seemed to queue these responses when presented with multiple tasks concurrently. Bottleneck? What bottleneck?
But David Meyer, a psychologist at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, doesn't buy the bottleneck idea. He thinks dual-task interference is just evidence of a strategy used by the brain to prioritise multiple activities. Meyer is known as something of an optimist by his peers. He has written papers with titles like "Virtually perfect time-sharing in dual-task performance: Uncorking the central cognitive bottleneck" (Psychological Science, vol 12, p 101). His experiments have shown that with enough practice - at least 2000 tries - some people can execute two tasks simultaneously as competently as if they were doing them one after the other. He suggests that there is a central cognitive processor that coordinates all this and, what's more, he thinks it uses discretion: sometimes it chooses to delay one task while completing another. Even with practice, not all people manage to achieve this harmonious time-share, however. Meyer argues that individual differences come down to variations in the character of the processor - some brains are just more "cautious", some more "daring". And despite urban legend, there are no noticeable differences between men and women. So, according to him, it's not a central bottleneck that causes dual-task interference, but rather "adaptive executive control", which "schedules task processes appropriately to obey instructions about their relative priorities
and serial order". Marois agrees that practice can sometimes erase interference effects. He has found that with just 1 hour of practice each day for two weeks, volunteers show a huge improvement at managing both his tasks at once. Where he disagrees with Meyer is in what the brain is doing to achieve this. Marois speculates that practice might give us the chance to find less congested circuits to execute a task - rather like finding trusty back streets to avoid heavy traffic on main roads - effectively making our response to the task subconscious. After all, there are plenty of examples of subconscious multitasking that most of us routinely manage: walking and talking, eating and reading, watching TV and folding the laundry. But while some dual tasks benefit from practice, others simply do not. "Certain kinds of tasks are really hard to do two at once," says Pierre Jolicoeur at the University of Montreal, Canada, who also studies multitasking. Dual tasks involving a visual stimulus and skeletal-motor response (which he dubs "in the eye and out the hand") and an auditory stimulus with a verbal response ("in the ear and out the mouth") do seem to be amenable to practice, he says. Jolicoeur has found that with enough training such tasks can be performed as well together as apart. He speculates that the brain
connections that they use may be somehow special, because we learn to speak by hearing and learn to move by looking. But pair visual input with a verbal response, or sound to motor, and there's no dramatic improvement. "It looks like no amount of practice will allow you to combine these," he says. For research purposes, these experiments have to be kept simple. Real-world multitasking poses much greater challenges. Even the upbeat Meyer is sceptical about how a lot of us live our lives. Instant-messaging and trying to do your homework? "It can't be done," he says. Conducting a job interview while answering emails? "There's no way you wind up being as good." Needless to say, there appear to be no researchers in the area of multitasking who believe that you can safely drive a car and carry on a phone conversation. In fact, last year David Strayer at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City reported that people using cellphones drive no better than drunks (Human Factors, vol 48, p 381). In another study, Strayer found that using a hands-free kit did not improve a driver's response time. He concluded that what distracts a driver so badly is the very act of talking to someone who isn't present in the car and therefore is unaware of the hazards facing the driver. “No researchers believe it's safe to drive a car and carry on a phone conversation”
It probably comes as no surprise that, generally speaking, we get worse at multitasking as we age. According to Art Kramer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who studies how ageing affects our cognitive abilities, we peak in our 20s. Though the decline is slow through our 30s and on into our 50s, it is there; and after 55, it becomes more precipitous. In one study, he and his colleagues had both young and old participants do a simulated driving task while carrying on a conversation. He found that while young drivers tended to miss background changes, older drivers failed to notice things that were highly relevant. Likewise, older subjects had more trouble paying attention to the more important parts of a scene than young drivers. It's not all bad news for over-55s, though. Kramer also found that older people can benefit from practice. Not only did they learn to perform better, brain scans showed that underlying that improvement was a change in the way their brains become active. While it's clear that practice can often make a difference, especially as we age, the basic facts remain sobering. "We have this impression of an almighty complex brain," says Marois, "and yet we have very humbling and crippling limits." For most of our history, we probably never needed to do more than one thing at a time, he says, and so we haven't evolved to be able to. Perhaps we will in
future, though. We might yet look back one day on people like Debbie and Alun as ancestors of a new breed of true multitaskers.
Question 14-18 Which paragraph contains the following information? 14 A theory explained delay happens when selecting one reaction 15 Different age group responds to important things differently 16 Conflicts happened when visual and radio elements emerge simultaneously 17 An experiment designed to demonstrate the critical part in brain for multitasking 18 An viewpoint favors optimistic side of multitask performance Question19-21 Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D 19 Which one is correct about experiment conducted by Rene Marois? A participants performed poorly on listening task solely B volunteers press different key on different color C participants need use different fingers on different colored object D they did a better job on Mixed image and sound information 20 Which statement is correct about the first limitation of Marois’ experiment?
A “attentional blink ” takes about ten seconds B lag occurs if we concentrate on one object while second one appears C we always have trouble in reacting the second one D first limitation can be avoided by certain measures 21 Which one is Not correct about Meyer’s experiment and statements? A just after failure in several attempts can people execute dual-task B practice can overcome dual-task interference C Meyer holds a different opinion on Marois’ theory D an existing processor decides whether delay another task or not Question 22-26 Do the following statement agree with the information given in the Reading Passage? (True, False or Not Given) 22 Longer gap between two presenting tasks means shorter delay toward the second one. 23 Incapable in human memory cause people sometimes miss the differences when presented two similar images. 24 Marois has different opinions on the claim that training removes bottleneck effect. 25 Art Kraner proved there is a correlation between multi-tasking performance and genders.
26 The author doesn’t believe that effect of practice could bring any variation.
Reading Passage 3
Question types
Summary(带词库) 6题 YES/NO/NOT GIVEN 4题 Multiple Choice 4题
做summary时首先要明确是全文型的还是段落型的。若是全文型的summary, 要把握文章结构,注意段首句的阅读,有效将summary中的各个句子分配到文章段落中,注意前后的逻辑联系。若是段落型的summary, 首先要确定考察的是文章的哪个段落,可以通过以下几种方式进行定位:1) 题目直接给出;2) summary的小标题;3) summary中的特殊印刷体;4) 大题顺序原则。定位好段落以后再使用完成句子题的方法进行一一解答,先定位,再判断所填词的词性或词类,然后进行同义转换的预测,最后回原文寻找答案。自带题库的summary则可额外注意备选选项的特点,从词性、词义两个方向缩小答案范围;需明确选项与原文词语之间的关系为:原文原词、派生词或同/近义词。
6个带选项的填空题 Venture Workshops Session training 4个判断题(顺序待定) YES NO NOT GIVEN YES
王新勇: 考试分析和备考建议 本场雅思阅读考试难度中等,提醒各位考生,在加大阅读、加大套题训练的同时,不妨花些时间关注近年的阅读机经,另外,必须多积累词汇,靠实力获得理想的成绩,不能单纯地依赖机经。下场考试重点关注社会类、动物类、环境类话题;题型重点关注标题配对、是非无判断题、选择题、填空题。