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雅思阅读中如何巧用关联词?


摘要:关联词的定义和分类 关联词是指使得词和词之间,句与句之间关系更加紧密的词或词组,也有不少人称之为关系词又或者信号词。不管在雅思听说读写四门中的任何一门都需要用到这类词,以使得句子理解或描述更加流畅,句意更加明晰。在雅思阅读中,关联词在解题,尤其是 Sum

关联词的定义和分类

关联词是指使得词和词之间,句与句之间关系更加紧密的词或词组,也有不少人称之为关系词又或者信号词。不管在雅思听说读写四门中的任何一门都需要用到这类词,以使得句子理解或描述更加流畅,句意更加明晰。在雅思阅读中,关联词在解题,尤其是SummaryList of Headings题中的应用尤为重要。现在我们先来看看关联词的具体分类。朗阁海外考试研究中心的总结过去的题目后认为,关联词按照用法主要可以分为两大类——支持类关联词和反对类关联词。

1关联词之支持类关联词

支持类关联词,即用上此类词或词组,句子内部或句子间的方向没有发生改变,只是根据前面的句意进一步延伸和细化,对前面的词和句子起到支撑和补充作用。当然,从这个意义上来说,这种词不一定都是连词。

举例关联词:for example, for instance, e.g., such as, like, take sth. for example, in particular, specifically

类比关联词:like, alike, similar, same, as, resemble, in comparison, compare

条件关联词:If, Only if, given that, in case of, unless, as long as , supposing that but for

选择,并列和递进关联词:or, either…or, and, as well, also, besides, apart from, in addition, what’s more, furthermore, moreover, (分号;)

因果关联词:

表示由......引起的,后接原因的词或词组:because, since, as, because of, as a result of, as a consequence of, due to, result from, be attributed to, be contributed to, arise from, stem from, owing to, thanks to, in that

表示导致,后接结果的词或者词组:so, therefore, thus, as a result, as a consequence, hence, lead to, result in, attribute to, contribute to, give rise to, bring about, generate, breed, trigger, incur

总结关联词:in conclusion, to conclude, to sum up, in sum, all in all, in brief

2关联词之反对类关联词

反对类关联词,即用上此类词或词组,句子内部或句子间的方向、句义发生颠覆性的改变,使前后句子意思形成相反关系,这类词包含:

否定关联词:not, none, no, never, non-, dis-, un-, in-, im-, -less, few, little, hardly, barely, seldom, neither…nor

对比关联词:unlike, by contrast, in contrast, on the contrary, conversely

转折和让步关联词:but, however, yet, nevertheless, nonetheless, in fact, actually, despite, in spite of, although, even though, though

(注:虽然in fact, actually这种词并不属于转折、让步类关联词,但是因为用上这两个词或词组后,句义通常会产生很大改变,因此笔者也把它们收录于此类关联)

虚拟语气词:if … were, if ... had done, if ... would do

(注:以上各类关联词中所举的例子仅仅只是常见的一部分,并不涵盖全部)

关联词在雅思阅读中的使用

 

运用一 借助关联词巧猜词

原题摘录:In the past, Australians had a higher opinion of doctors than they do today.

原文对应:The high standing of professionals, including doctors, has been eroded as a consequence.

解析:本句对应已经很明显了,但是在实际教学过程中,竟然有近三分之一的同学不认识erode这个词的意思。此时,原文中因为有‘as a consequence’这个经典的因果关联词,那么我们完全可以借助它来帮助我们理解此对应句前一句的内容,继而判断erode这个单词的大致意思。先看前一句:‘A better educated and less accepting public has become disillusioned with the experts in general, and increasingly skeptical about science and empirically based knowledge. 当然,不认识erode的同学,基本也不认识前一句中的‘disillusion, skepticalempirically’这几个词。但是,仅仅借助主语less accepting public这个否定式论调,加上disillusiondis否定词缀,外加句中并列词and, 我们不难知道本句大概是否定和科学之类的意思,那么题目对应句中的结果as a consequence, 自然也就不甚良好了。本题判断为YES

运用二 借助关联词秒对应

原题摘录:... However, as archaeologists do not try to influence human behaviour, the writer compares their style of working to that of a 27__________.

解析:因为该题summary有给出范围是最后两段,加之前面的25题和26题很容易定位,那么27题的定位基本在这两题之后,范围顿时缩小。加之题干中有compare ... to ...这个类比关联词,那么在之后的范围内定位类比关联词,很容易找到‘... is rather like that of the scientist.

原题摘录:Some plastics behave in a similar way to 1__________ in that they melt under heat and can be moulded into new forms.

解析:因为summary题为顺序题,且该题为本篇文章的第一种题型,故首题答案在开头段的概率非常高,利用定位词‘... melt under heat’不难找到在文中第二段对应句“Some are thermoplastic, which means that, like candlewax, they melt when heated and can be reshaped. 利用题中类比词similar, 马上找到文中对应词like, 答案就是candlewax了。

运用三 借助关联词巧解题

原题摘录:The writer admits that global warming is a 38________ challenge, but says that it will not have a catastrophic impact on our future, if we deal with it in the 39________ way.

A. unrealistic    B. agreed    C. expensive    D. right        E. long-term

F. usual        G. surprising    H. personal        I. urgent

解析:通读题目这句话,借助38题空格前面的’a’这个不定冠词,我们可以排除选项ABCI, 那么38题剩余的选项为5个。借助but这个转折关联词,我们知道后半句所表达的内容与前半句意思反差不小,后半句讲的是“不会对未来产生重大灾难”,重在强调时间“未来”,那前半句是不是要表达全球变暖会带来长期影响?答案为E。至于39题,因为有个条件表达,通读则答案很明显为D

原题摘录:Sometimes the desire to protect ideas seems to have been stronger than the desire to communicate them, particularly in the case of mathematicians and 29________. In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the 30_________ nor the 31__________ to express their ideas.

解析:29题中有个particularly表示举特例,我们需要很具体的例子,能跟数学家并列的什么人。那么在原文中找到就不难了,因为在数学家的附近就有个doctors, 讲的是相似的内容。剩下的两题,按顺序原则,在29题的后面继续寻找,而且有否定词组neither...nor..., 紧接着的下文中出现否定的内容只有两个lack, 用顺序词first and second引导着。

运用四 借助关联词锁定大意

原文D段摘录:Newman believes one of the best studies ... . It found that pushing everyone into the city centre was not the best approach. Instead, the proposal advocated the creation of urban villages at hundreds of sites, mostly round railway stations.

解析:本段总共只有三句话,所以每句话的大意都建议大家扫读一遍,因为每句话都有可能是主旨句。最后一句话中出现了Instead, 一般来说该词引导的句子都是想要重点突出的内容,而且该引导句肯定与前面的句子意思大相径庭。那么,最后一句既然表达的是建议建立城中村,而且建在火车站周边,往前推一句,“把每个人都推到市中心去并不是个最佳选择”,那么对应选项i. Avoiding an overcrowded centre