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当前位置: 首页 > 雅思频道 > 雅思写作 >

雅思写作中如何做到同义替换(二)


摘要:写作中除了直接的同义转换以外还有间接的同义转换,如上下义词汇之间的相互转换。那么什么叫上义词和下义词呢?在这里先做个解释:它们是指两个词语在语义上具有包含和被包含的关系,两者是具有从属关系的一组词。上义词指的是那些表示意义较概括的词,它们的词义包括

 

写作中除了直接的同义转换以外还有间接的同义转换,如上下义词汇之间的相互转换。那么什么叫上义词和下义词呢?在这里先做个解释:它们是指两个词语在语义上具有包含和被包含的关系,两者是具有从属关系的一组词。上义词指的是那些表示意义较概括的词,它们的词义包括了下义词的词义。如animalsheep, tiger, wolf, dog等的上义词,或者toola hammer, a saw, a screwdriver的上义词,而roseflower的下义词。sweepinghousehold chores的下义词,household choressweeping的上义词。上下义词之间的转换一个是在你词穷的时候给你填补的机会,多使用下义词还能够使你的文章看起来更加丰满,没有重复。这里列举几个题目来看看如何直接通过上下义词汇来拓展文章。

首先最常见的要数下义词,我们通过4道雅思真题来看下义词如何使用

1. Some people believe that young people should be free to choose his or her job, while others think that they should be realistic and think about their future. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.(工作类,双边讨论题型)

看到job这个词,很多同学的第一反应是很多同义异形词,如vocation, profession, work, occupation, career等等,但是除了同义异形转换以外可不可以通过上下义词来转换呢?比如这个题目问的是:一些人认为年轻人应该自由选择他们的职业,另一些人认为他们应该实际一些考虑一下自己的未来,在这里可以想想年轻人可以选择的职业从形式上看包括哪些:full time, part time, temporary, odd jobs, seasonal, self-employment,再从内容上看包括:accountant会计;actor, actress演员;barber理发师;baker烘焙师;attendant服务员;cashier出纳员;chef厨师;computer programmer程序员;lawyer律师;librarian图书管理员;model模特儿等等,那么这个题目在拓展的时候就可以把job具体化,这样写出来的文章会词汇丰富,内容充实。

 

2. Some people think lawbreakers should be sent to prison, while other people think there are some alternatives (for example, doing work which is beneficial for local community). Discuss both views and give your own opinion.(犯罪类,双边讨论题型)

这个题目中的主语lawbreaker,很多人一看到就想到一些同义异形词可以替换它,如:criminal, offender, culprit, bad man, outlaw, delinquent。这些必然是好,但是文章中如果仅仅是替换还是会觉得略显干涩。题目中的意思是一些人认为违法者应该被送进监狱,然而有些人认为有其它的方法如做一些有利于当地社区的工作。在这里,如果在拓展文章的时候适当的把lawbreaker给下义词话,也就是细节化,那么文章会饱满充实很多。lawbreaker的下义词又有哪些呢?以下可以一一列举:murderer, robber, burglar, thief, arsonist, swindler, smuggler, stowaways, rapist, vandals, shoplifter, kidnapper, assaulter, forger等等,这样文章的词汇立马高大上起来。

 

3. It has been observed that in many countries not enough students are choosing to study science subjects at university. What do you think are the causes of the problem and what are the effects on society?(教育类,原因+对策题型)

此题中提到的science subjects,考生们现在可以立马反应出来可以找它的下义词包括:maths, physicals, chemistry, computer science, geography, biology等。除了science subjects可以下义词以外,students实际上也可以下义词,可以是pupil, learner, scholar, novice等。但是注意题中的含义是在许多国家没有足够的学生能在大学选择理科,你是如何看待这个问题的原因和对社会的影响。这里的学生主要是指大学生,那么可以把大学生 (university student) 的下义词找到如freshman, sophomore, junior, senior这样也是一种同义替换很好的方法。

 

4. Technological progress in the past century has its negative effect, despite its remarkable contribution. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(科技类,同不同意题型)

这个题目同学们拿到手就觉得technological progress非常笼统,如果文中一再重复很有风险,有同学就提出可以用innovation, invention等来替代,但是依然觉得非常over-generalized, 在这可以把technological progress下义词化,变成:internet, mobile phone, airplane, car, train, GPS, machine, spaceship, laptop, computer, DNA, biochip等等,这样文章要写科技进步的利与弊就不会太难了。

 

 

当然除了雅思题目中出现的可以列举下义词的笼统词汇,在写作行文当中也会遇到可以适当把general的词汇同义转换成细节词汇的情况,如:

 

1. fast food: hamburger, pizza, kebab, soft drink, French fries, fried chicken, hot dog

 

2. pollution: air pollution, land pollution, water pollution, nuclear pollution, white pollution, noise pollution

 

3. transportation: airplane, train, bicycle, motorbike, car, subway, high speed rail, coach, taxi, tramcar

 

4. media: television, magazine, radio, newspaper, computer

 

5.

 leisure activities: sport (basketball, baseball, badminton, swimming,

fencing, volleyball, soccer, diving...) reading, listening to music,

dancing, sleeping, hiking, camping, traveling

 

 

大家平时可以多积累下义词,使你的文章看起来词汇量丰富,内容充实。其次上义词的使用也不失为一种好方法,很多题目看起来问的比较细节,实际上可以归为一个大类找特点,以下以雅思真题为例:

 

1. Advertising which can be seen everywhere in daily life influences what people think is important and has negative effects. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(媒体类,同不同意题型)

此题意为:广告在生活无处不见,对我们的影响也是方方面面,很多人认为它给我们带来了消极的影响,你同意否?

看到advertising当然根据我们之前的同义转换的方法已经有两种可以使用了:第一,同义异形

词,advertising=advertisement=commercial=billing=publicizing;第二,找下义

词,advertising包括:TV ads, radio ads, print ads, billboard

ads等等,同时我们也可以找到它的上义词来理解广告的好与坏,那就是“media 的好与坏,Media (singular medium)

are the storage and transmission channels or tools used to store and

deliver information or

data。它本身就是传播信息的,所以不管同学们看到advertising这个词会觉得广告就是传销就是欺骗,它本身其实是没有错的,并且有积极意义在

里面,换这个角度想就会豁然开朗。

 

2. Some people think government should not spend money on supporting artists and money should be spent on more important things. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(政府类,同不同意题型)

此题意为:一些人

认为政府不应该花钱在支持艺术家身上,而应该花在更重要的事情上,你同意否?

同学们看到这个题目往往觉得more important

things是有下义词的,并且很好同义转换拓展开来,比如说peoples health, peoples living condition,

 education, scientific research, medical improvement, poverty,

war等等。这个角度确实很好,同时我们也可以思考把artist这个词下义词化,如musician, painter, calligrapher,

 sculptor, photographer, designer,

pianist等,也是非常聪明的,但是这时候我们发现如果用上义词的方法找到artist的上义词—profession,实际上艺术家不管他如何优

雅,如何艺术,他还是一个职业者,而职业者就必须得赚钱养家糊口,但是艺术这东西又是曲高和寡,不能解决及时问题的,如饥饿,生存等问题,所以这个职业很

难赚到钱,如果没有政府支持的话,因此,从上义词的角度看我们不难发现,政府确实有支持他们的理由。

 

以上的分析,同学们会发现同义转换其实方法非

常多,并且在雅思作文中相当好用,解决了很多同学面临的词汇匮乏问题。那么除了之前分析的同义异形词,上义词下义词的同义转换之外还有没有其它的同义转换

的方法了呢?回答是:Of course! 以下再给大家介绍一种好用的方法。

 

词性转换中形容词转名词

动词转名词

 

词性转换中形容词转名词,动词转名词也有意想不到的效果。在写作中,我们常使用的是形容词/动词转名词会多一些,这样会使句子看起来高大上档次,以下举几个例子:

 

1. 改前:It is important / necessary / significant(形容词)to come up with a

remedy to make up for the damages we have done to the nature.

同义转换

后:It is of great importance / necessity / significance to(名词)come up

with a remedy to make up for the damages we have done to the

nature.(环境类话题)

2. 改前:For many educatorsit is interesting(形容词)how to explore intelligent students talents to the utmost.

同义转换后:for many educators, it is an interesting issue(名词)how to explore the intelligent students talents to the utmost.(教育类话题)

3.

 改前:Providing access to information by improving internet and other

telecommunication facilities is related to(形容词)the ease with which

business in a city receive, process, utilize and send information.

同义转换后:Providing access to information by improving internet and other

telecommunication facilities has relevance to(名词)the ease with which

business in a city receive, process, utilize and send

information.(科技类话题)

4. 改前:The rise of global language

facilitates(动词)of cross-cultural communication and the communication

between people with different language backgrounds.

同义转换后:The rise of

 global language is a facilitator(名词)of cross-cultural communication and

 the communication between people with different language backgrounds.

5. 改前:Public facilities, widely accepted as one of the main precursors to a city development ,should be a prior(形容词)one.

同义转换后:Public facilities, widely accepted as one of the main precursors to a citys development, should be one of priorities(名词).

不论是动词转名词还是形容词转名词,大家只要记住名词的后缀主要有以下几种即可:

1. V+ ment 结尾:achieve achievement 成就

2. V+ tion 结尾:attract吸引 attraction 有吸引力的事或人;令人向往的地方

3. V+ ance 结尾:appear appearance 外貌,出现

4. V+ ing 结尾:say saying 谚语