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【朗阁教育】托福独立口语高分技巧,如何学会改述?


摘要:托福口语考试分为独立任务和综合任务两个部分,独立任务一般要求考生对所给问题提出自己的看法和观点;而综合任务则更多考察考生对于材料的复述能力。

    对于很多考生而言,大量练习掌握了答题技巧后,对于综合口语任务的答题思路会更清晰,而且由于原题中的阅读和听力部分提供了大量的语料,所以总结复述起来相对会比独立任务轻松一些。而独立任务考察的话题相对而言更为多样、广泛,所以很多考生觉得摸不着答题的脉络,会背诵一些模板去组织自己答案的框架,甚至在考场中直接背诵答案的内容和例子,但往往最终都得到一个远比自己口语能力低很多的分数。我们不是不可以用一些模式化的东西去丰富我们的语料库,而是要有技巧的灵活的对于模板进行改造,不再选择千篇一律的模板,而是通过改述的方法创造属于自己的模板。

 

首先,要改造题干。在托福口语的评分细则中明确指出考生如果使用太多题干词汇,得分就会偏低考生曾经对一个话题:

 

“A school is planning to organize its students to visit the workplace. Which place do you recommend the students to visit? 1. A science lab2. A business office; 3. A TV studioUse specific details and examples to support your response.”做出了如下开头式的回答:“If a school is planning to organize its students to visit the workplace, I will choose go to a science lab.” 

 

首先,这种开头基本是对考题的照搬,如果题干很长的话,全部要复述出来也许要花费大概15秒的时间仅仅说了一个开头;其次,这样做没有体现出一种变化性,只是一种简单的重复。我们如果说:“I would rather visit the workplace…”这样的开头既简洁,又能对题干进行很好的paraphrase

 

类似改述的表达还可以是:

 

Which of these do you prefer? 可以换为I would like to have... I would like to...

Which option would you prefer? 换为I think that v.-ing... is the better approach

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? 可以换为I believe the statement is reasonable. In other words I think...

Which factor is more important to you? 改为I would rather have...

Which way of life do you think is better? 改为I prefer to...

Which opinion do you think is better? 改为I tend to support the opinion that…is…

Which approach do you think is better for students? 改为My opinion is that students should...

 

所以在考试前考生可以专门拿当月的机经题目去练习开头的变化方式,提前通过模拟练习做好准备,做到看到题目就可以脱口而出自己改述过答案。同时这里也提醒考生不要在结尾处再进行一次类似的重复,否则答案听上去会有混时间的赘余感,因为开头和结尾都是套路式的句子。

 

其次,内容可以基于模板融入自己的例子进行改述。比如问道:“If visitors from another country planned to visit your country, where would you recommend they go? Explain your choice in detail.”这道题目就可以进行本土化的改造,加入自己生活城市的景点和当地特色。这样做的目的很简单,大多数没有认真准备或者没有进行思考的答案一般说的比较泛泛,而人类语言和思维的共通性极容易让你和其他人的观点撞车,从而最多只能得到中等分数段。所以我们要想有一些变化就需要用到对例子的改述这种方法。比如有一个例子是关于美国的:

 

“If I were asked to give suggestions about cities to foreign visitors, I would recommend New York City--it is truly a city that never sleeps. There are endless things to do and see all year long. No matter what you're in the mood for, New York has it. Some great restaurants, hotels and shops are located in this city. I’d suggest the visitors start the day off by walking around in beautiful Central Park, then have lunch downtown in The Village and go shopping in SoHo. In the evening, they could go see a Broadway show. Then, the next day, the sightseers could visit the Statue of Liberty, walk around Times Square and maybe even see a New York Yankees baseball game. And, if they didn't want to spend a lot of money, New York is the perfect city for people-watching.”

 

在这一段答案中,很棒的一个前提就是“it is truly a city that never sleeps”这就说明纽约对于游客来说是一个能从早玩到晚的城市,答案就显得很充实。我们下面就对这个答案进行个性化改造,变成广州版的。

 

If I were asked to give suggestions about cities to foreign visitors, I would recommend Guangzhou—it is truly a city that brings rich history and modern items together. There are endless things to do and see all year long. No matter what you're in the mood for, GZ has it. Some fancy restaurants, hotels and shops are located in this city. I'd suggest the visitors start the day off by walking around in Zheng Jia Square, which is a central general store, and my friends can taste traditionally Cantonese morning breakfast and go shopping in it. In the evening, they could see Canton Tower, a luminous TV station. Standing on the top of skyscraper, they will overlook full views of GZ. Therefore, GZ is a must-visit city for my foreign friends.

 

当然,考生完全可以按照自己的喜好对上述模板进行本地化改述,而且建议考生们平时在做brainstorming的时候,可以将自己喜爱的电影小说音乐人物地点食物想法等都列出来,以方便做出自己的模板。这样,对待托福口语考试就不再像对待生硬的机器聊天,而更像是与自己的朋友倾诉和分享自己的爱好,观点,从而做出自己喜欢而且独特的答案。