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【朗阁教育】“看透”新托福阅读句子改写题


摘要:新托福阅读中,句子改写题即我们俗称的高亮(highlight)题,考察的是考生对英文长难句的理解。文中会将一句较长的、含有复杂语法(从句、插入语、破折号、多短句、较长引导语)的句子标出黑体,四个选项中只有一个意思与原文相近,为正确答案。此题在每次的托福阅读考试


新托福阅读中,句子改写题即我们俗称的“高亮(highlight)题”,考察的是考生对英文长难句的理解。文中会将一句较长的、含有复杂语法(从句、插入语、破折号、多短句、较长引导语)的句子标出黑体,四个选项中只有一个意思与原文相近,为正确答案。此题在每次的托福阅读考试的每篇文章中一般会出现一次,题目位置不确定,但大部分情况下都位于第10或11道题目考。暂且不论此题目简单与否,只看它的题目位置,比较靠后,考生做到后面的题目时已经没有多少耐心,再加上长句子的理解本身就是很多考生的弱项,所以此类题目的得分率较低。但实际上,在掌握了基本的语法知识后,辅助技巧,此类题目原则上可以拿到满分。下面,我们将从题干分析、长句理解、选项分析三个方面对此题型进行讲解,将其“看透”。广州朗阁教育

1看透”题干

 

句子改写题的题干永远一致,所以在考试时考生一般会直接做题,不会再去关注题干。但实际上,题干本身即隐藏着此类题型的关键点。所以,“看透”题干是此类题型的第一步。

 

Which of thesentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlightedsentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important waysor leave out essential information.

 

我们来观察一下题干中的几个关键点:

 

1. Best expresses最好表达。有考生将此处理解为在几个都挺对的选项中选一个最对的。这种理解是错误的,托福与传统中国考试内漏洞百出的题目非常不同,托福讲究科学性,考察语言能力,不会出现奇怪的做题技巧。所以对于此题来说,只有一个选项是对的,并且是非常对,另外三个选项因为各种原因,都是错的。

 

The essentialinformation关键信息。意思是正确选项里面包含了原文黑体处的主要信息。一句话的主要信息是它的主谓宾,但实际上通过朗阁海外考试研究中心的对此题目的观察分析,发现大部分情况下,正确答案不只包含了原文长句的主谓宾,连一些not so essential(非重要)的信息,比如从句、插入成分等,都包含在内。这样一来是方便考生做题的,因为可以对应的点变多了,在这种情况下,信息越多的选项越有可能是正确选项

 

Eg:The tradition of religioussculpture extends overmost historicalperiods butis less clearly delineated thanthat of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the oldcustom of earthenware burial ceramicswith laterreligious images and architectural ornament. (TPO10-1 Chinese Pottery)

 

此句的主要意思为the tradition extends over most periods, but is less clear than..., forsome reason(for后面连接句子表示原因),it结合了老的(old)和新的(later)。

C选项Religious sculpture was createdin most periods, but its history islessclear than that of stonewares or porcelains because someoldforms continued tobe used even when newones were developed.此选项中的几个关键意思:was created in most periods, but转折,less clear than比较级,because连接的原因状语从句,这几个意思与原文我们解读出的意思完全吻合,包括原因状语从句和比较级。因此可以看出来正确答案非常全面

 

2. Incorrectchoices change the meaning in important ways错误选项改变了重要信息。“改变了重要信息”是常见的一种干扰项模式,比如原文的某个单词是否定的(有not),但选项中这个单词成了肯定(没有not),那这肯定是改变了重要信息,反之亦然。

 

Eg: But asmore and more accumulations of strata werecataloged in more and more places, it became clear that thesequences of rockssometimes differed from region to region and that no rock type was evergoing to become a reliable time marker throughout the world.(TPO6-2 WilliamSmith)

A选项Thediscovery of regional differences in the sequences of rocks led geologists tobelieve that rock types couldsomeday become reliable time markers. 原文中第二个that从句no rock type was ever going to become a reliable time markerthroughout the world.没有岩石会变为可靠的时间标记物,“no rock type”是个很重要的否定,而A选项里面将原文的否定变为肯定,因此是干扰项。

 

同样在D选项中,Becausepeople did not catalogregional differences in sequences of rocks,it was believed that rocks could never be reliabletime markers. 主句的rocks could never be reliable time markers与原文的否定是相符合的,但because引导的原因状语从句中people did not catalog regional differences的否定与原文的but as more and more accumulations of strata were cataloged in more andmore places中的肯定是不相符的,因此是干扰项。

 

3. Incorrectchoices leave out essential information错误选项漏掉了关键信息。这是另外一种常见的干扰项模式,所以考生会发现一些选项本身的句子跟原文意思是一致的,但仍是错误答案,大部分情况都是因为该选项只是复述了原文的非重要信息,而没有把主句意思包含在内。通常表现为选项过短。

 

还是上述例句:

But as more and more accumulationsof strata were cataloged in more and more places, it became clear that the sequences ofrockssometimes differed from region to region and that no rock type was evergoing to become a reliable time marker throughout the world.(TPO6-2 WilliamSmith)

 

C选项Smith'scatalogs of rock strata indicated that the sequences of rocks are differentfrom place to place and from region to region. 此选项便漏掉了原句的关键信息。原文中as引导的是原因状语从句,真正的主句在后面,it became clearthat... that引导的两个从句才是主要意思,但C选项仅仅重复了原文的原因状语从句,没有包含主句意思,即漏掉了关键信息,所以是干扰项。


 

 

 

2看透”长句

 

 

无论英文句子长或短,都遵循一个基本原则,即一个句子只有一套主谓宾,是最主要的部分,其他成分均为补充。所以看长句子时考生千万不要恐惧,一定要牢记再长再复杂的句子被解构后仍然是最简单的主谓宾结构。

 

主语:位于长句最前面的独立名词,一般是名词、动名词。

谓语:主语发出的动作,是动词,注意与ed分词做后置定语相区分。

宾语:谓语动词的接受者。

 

长句子的常见类型有四种:含有较长引导语、被标点符号(破折号、逗号)隔开的句子、多短句、包含各种从句。

 

 

3看透”选项

 

 

正确答案比较一致,即与原文意思一致,但错误答案却各有各的错误标志。原理上来说,考生在原文长句尽量看懂的情况下,都能根据常见的干扰项特点将其排除掉。下面,我们在大概理解了原文长句后,通过对几个例题的分析,来看一下如何解读句子分析题的各个选项,从而总结出此类题型的解题方法。

 

Eg1:At one time, the animals present in thesefossil beds were assignedto various modern animal groups, but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossilsrepresent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period anddisappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups.

 

m Theanimals found in the Tommotian fossil bed were once thought to belong toavariety of modern animal groups, but now they are thought to havedescended from asingle group.

m Animalsin the Tommotian fossil beds were initially assigned to modern animal groups but are now thought to belongto groups that emerged and died out during the Cambrian period.

Though at first they thought otherwise, paleontologists nowagree that the animals in the Tommotian have body forms from which modernanimals have descended.

It is unclear whetherthe Tommotian fossils from the early Cambrian periodrepresent unique body forms or whether they should be assigned to variousmodern animal groups.

 

原文主干解读

句子结构是but引导的两个简单句,有两个相对比的时间状语:at one time和now。两个简单句因为是并列关系,所以都很重要,两个句子的主要意思都要包含在正确答案中。第一个简单句中比较重要的是谓语were assigned to, 第二个简单句中比较重要的是转折but most people agree that, that引导的宾语从句中比较重要的是谓语动词represent以及that引导的定语从句中的时间arose in the early... and disappeared before theend..., 最后的伴随状语中的否定no descendants.

 

选项解读

A选项里面有对两个时间状语的对比,出现的词跟原文也比较吻合,貌似比较正确,但最后的descendent是肯定,与原文的否定相矛盾,排除。所以,要看肯定否定

 

B选项里面有initially和now两个时间状语的对比,从句的时间也能对应上,没有明显硬伤,所以正确答案的可能性很大。

 

C选项开头有一个表示让步的though, 可以排除掉该选项了,因为原文并没有让步关系。所以,不光要看意思,还要看原文结构,即有无明显逻辑关系(转折、递进、并列、让步等),然后可以据此第一时间内排除掉某些逻辑明显错误的选项,节省时间。

 

D选项开头it is unclear whether一看就可以排除掉了,因为原文是now agree,所以要看原句主要意思

 

Eg2: Only the last of these was suited atall to the continuous operating of machines, andalthough waterpower abounded in Lancashire andScotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills,it had one great disadvantage: streamsflowed where nature intended them to and water-driven factories had to belocated on their banks whether or not the location wasdesirable for otherreasons.

 

·         Running water was the best power source for factories sinceit could keepmachines operating continuously but since it was abundant only inLancashire and Scotland,most mills and factories that were locatedelsewhere could not be water driven.

·         The disadvantage of using waterpower is thatstreams do not necessarily flow in places that are the most suitable forfactories which explainswhy so many water—powered grain and textile mills were located inundesirable places.

·         Since machines could be operated continuously onlywhere running water was abundant, grain and textile mills as well as other factoriestendedto belocatedonly inLancashire and Scotland.

·         Running water was the only source of power that was suitablefor the continuous operation of machines, but to make use of it factories had to belocated where the water was, regardless of whether such locations made senseotherwise.

 

原句主干解读

and连接的两个简单句,因为是并列关系,所以两个简单句的主要意思都要包含在正确答案中。第一个简单句中的重点信息:only, the last of these was suited(代词these指的是上文中的running water)。第二个简单句中的重点信息:although引导的让步句不是很重要,重要的是后面的主句:(but) it had one great disadvantage以及冒号后面的解释内容,尽量看懂。(注意此句隐含的转折关系)

 

选项解读

A选项里面有一个最高级best, 原文没有出现,可以排除掉。后面的only修饰错误,且出现了例子Lancashire and Scotland, 一般长句分析中的例子,比如人名地名等大写信息不会出现在正确答案中。所以,要看最高级、比较级、绝对词及例子

 

B选项里面的前半句话很正确,但后面的which explains why的因果关系原文没有出现。所以,要看外形,即明显逻辑关系

 

C选项出现大写例子,only使用不当。所以,要看绝对词、例子

 

D选项的几个关键信息,the only...was suitable for..., but, regardlessof...与原文重点信息一致,为正确选项。

 

总之,长句理解题的关键在于:1. 读懂原文关键信息(找句子主干,分清主句从句);2.观察原文外形,即明显逻辑关系(注意隐含的逻辑关系,比如although后面被省略掉的but)及绝对词;3. 看选项时,多观察选项的特别之处(比如最高级、比较级、绝对词);4. 原文的大写信息比如人名地名在做例子的时候一般不会出现在正确选项中。